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Let's take a look at the chain of communication. We're going to start with the control room, through to the ambulance, and then we are going to progress it right the way through to how it hands over in a hospital. So critically important information comes from the control room, so when you make a 999 call, the information that you give needs to be as clear and as accurate as possible. Don't use slang, use proper road names where possible, give us much information. What you are doing is you are giving information to somebody in a control room who is typing it all into a computer and has a set algorithm of questions to ask you. They need to ask you those questions to get the right information, to get the crew to your side as fast as possible. And don't think that the crew is just sitting there waiting, the crew is actually mobile to you while the situation is taking place, and whilst they are keying into the computer, the ambulance is already on its route to you.

But it is critically important that information is clear, concise, and accurate. If there is anything there of any risk or any danger, or if you are frightened, that needs to be communicated as well because the next thing that happens is an ambulance crew arrives on scene with an active shooter with a gun, a knife-man, some fight going on, and we really need the police there for everybody's safety, at the same time as the ambulance crew. But if you don't pass that to the control room, the control room can not act appropriately.

So that communication that you give to the control room is the first line of communication. The second line is that is relayed to the ambulance crew. It will be given in radio messages, it will also be given automatically on to tablets. So that they can see and read everything that you are typing as it comes over the tablet, so that we can see all the data coming through to the crew on route to you, then the information that they have got is correct, so they should be able to find you easily and accurately. The next line of communication that comes into play is when the crew get out of the vehicle and start to talk to you, the person with the patient, or you the patient. Again, all they will ask you is what's happened. And you need to give a simple, steady, controlled description of exactly what happened, when it happened, any medications that you have taken or they have taken, any accident, what happened, when it happened, why it happened. So the more information that you pass the ambulance crew at this point, the more picture, the more data that they can build in their heads as to what potentially is going to go right and what potentially is going to go wrong, and what their next actions will be. Now halfway through your conversations, the crew may carry on walking and working on the patient, but they are not switched off to you, they are not ignoring you, they are not being funny, but they actually have to start work on the patient as soon as possible.

So they will take and pick from your talking and your conversation, the important bits that they need to head for and they will start to check those while you are talking. So please don't think they are being ignorant, they are not. They are listening whilst working. It's important that we get to the patient, and start to talk to the patient. So once they have got your information, they will talk to the patient. If you were not the patient if you were the care or the first aid looking after the patient, they will talk to the patient, and they will collaborate the two stories to try and make sure that they have got an accurate, clear, concise picture of what's going on, what medications you are on. And once they have got that information, they will document it all. And they will take the second set of observations to compare the first to the second, and that will give them some idea of how the patient has either improved or not improved, got worse, because they will have the facts, the figures, and they will have a baseline set of observations to work that out from. The next line of communication, potentially, is going to either go back to the control room, as to their actions and where they are going to go, or it may even go to the helicopter.

If Helimed is required they will be talking to the ambulance crew in the helicopter directly, as to where to land nearby, where they can get to, and how critical the patient is. So that feedback is going to either the control room, to tell them where they are going or the helicopter, to tell them where they need them to be to get that patient to the right receiving hospital in the quickest, fastest time. The ambulance crew then loads up the patient, whether it's on a helicopter or into the ambulance, and then sets off to the hospital. Whilst they are on route to the hospital they can, actually, phone ahead, tell the hospital exactly what's coming in, what your injuries are, what your age, doctor, all of the data that they have can be sent electronically and verbally over the internet and also over telephone lines and radio communications. So the hospital is already aware of what's coming in, what the life-threatening situation could be, what your injuries are, and the time of arrival. When the ambulance crew arrive at the hospital, they then again start another communication with the hospital and it's called a hospital handover, where they give all of the relevant details to the hospital receiving nurse, receiving reception, or potentially even the trauma team or the crash team that are waiting for you on your arrival. Again that information will be short, sharp, critical information.

They won't waffle, they won't talk about histories too much. It will be a very short, concise handover, which will be then documented and the team in the hospital will then start to act on the information that's given. We don't want big, long, technical terms. Nobody expects a paramedic to a doctor or even a first aider to a paramedic; we don't look for big technical terms, we need to have things pointed out. Keep it simple, talk about it simply, use simple terms. Don't expand, keep facts, keep it to facts and figures. Don't start to waffle and go into stories, because we're not interested in that at this point. So the communication starts on the minute you pick the phone up to the minute we drop the patient off at a receiving hospital, and right the way through to your discharge, fit and healthy from the hospital when you are finally signed off. Because when you arrive at the hospital, the same chain carries on all the way through the hospital up until you are completely discharged, fit and well from the hospital.